Plant Growth and Movements (Introduction)

Plant Growth and Movement




  • Plants grow and develop in a highly organized sequence from a fertilized egg (zygote) to a mature plant with roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds. 
  • Development involves two main processes: growth (increase in size) and differentiation (specialization of cells into specific types). 
  • The first step in plant growth is seed germination, triggered by favorable environmental conditions. 
  • Seeds remain dormant when conditions are unfavorable and resume growth when conditions become suitable. 
  • Plants go through vegetative (non-reproductive) and flowering (reproductive) phases. 
  • Vegetative phase precedes flowering, allowing the plant to establish roots, stems, and leaves for optimal growth before allocating resources to reproduction. 
  • All plant organs are composed of different types of tissues, each with specific structures and functions. 
  • Cells make up tissues, which form organs, and their structures are tailored to perform specific functions like photosynthesis (in leaves) or support (in stems). 
  • Developmental processes in plants are governed by intrinsic (internal) and extrinsic (external) factors. 
  • Intrinsic factors include genetic programming and hormonal regulation, while extrinsic factors encompass environmental cues like light, temperature, and nutrients. 
  • The structure and function of plant cells, tissues, and organs can be altered by genetic mutations, environmental stressors, or developmental signals. 
  • Such alterations may lead to changes in growth patterns, metabolism, or response to stimuli. 
  • The life cycle of a plant involves growth, reproduction, and eventual senescence (aging and death). 
  • Leaves, flowers, and fruits have limited lifespans and undergo periodic shedding or senescence, while the main plant body continues to grow and produce new tissues.