• The stem is the ascending part of the axis, giving rise to branches, leaves, flowers, and fruits.
  • Originates from the plumule of a germinating seed's embryo.
  • Comprises nodes, where leaves emerge, and internodes, the segments between nodes.
  • Bears buds, which can be terminal (at the end) or axillary (in leaf axils).
  • Initially green in youth, often maturing into woody, dark brown structures.


Stem Functions:


  • Branching and Support:

The primary role of the stem is to support branches that bear leaves, flowers, and fruits, aiding in their exposure to sunlight.


  • Conduction:

The stem conducts water, minerals, and photosynthates (food produced through photosynthesis) throughout the plant.


  • Storage:

Some stems serve as storage organs for food reserves.


  • Protection:

Stems may offer protection to delicate internal structures.


  • Vegetative Propagation:

Certain stems facilitate vegetative reproduction, allowing plants to reproduce asexually.