• Fruits are a distinctive characteristic of flowering plants, resulting from the maturation of the ovary after fertilisation.
  • If a fruit develops without fertilisation, it's referred to as a parthenocarpic fruit.
  • Composition of a Fruit:

A typical fruit consists of a pericarp (fruit wall) and seeds.

The pericarp can be dry or fleshy.


  • Differentiation of Pericarp in Fleshy Fruits:

In fleshy fruits with a thick pericarp, it's divided into three layers:

Outer epicarp: The outermost layer.

Middle mesocarp: The edible, fleshy layer.

Inner endocarp: The innermost, often hard layer.


  • Drupe Fruits:

Some fruits, like mango and coconut, are categorised as drupes.


Drupes develop from monocarpellary superior ovaries and usually contain a single seed.



The pericarp is well-differentiated, comprising an outer thin epicarp, a fleshy edible mesocarp, and a stony hard endocarp.



Also a drupe, the mesocarp is fibrous and surrounds the hard endocarp.