Angiosperms are a group of vascular plants that bear flowers and fruits. They are also known as flowering plants and are the most advanced and beneficial group of plants.

Characteristics of Angiosperms:

  • Angiosperms have well-differentiated bodies with fully developed shoot and root systems.
  • They are vascular plants with stems, roots, and leaves.
  • The seeds of angiosperms are found in a flower and develop inside the plant organs to form fruit.
  • Angiosperms can grow in various habitats as trees, herbs, shrubs, and bushes.
  • The flowers undergo double and triple fusion, which leads to the formation of a diploid zygote and triploid endosperm.
  • All angiosperms are comprised of stamens and carpels, which are the reproductive structures of the flowers.
  • The production of the endosperm is one of the greatest advantages of angiosperms. The endosperm is formed after fertilization and is a source of food for the developing seed and seedling.

Classification of Angiosperms:

  • Angiosperms are divided into two subgroups: dicotyledonous (dicots) and monocotyledonous (monocots).
  • Monocots have one cotyledon on each seed, and their leaves have parallel veins.
  • Dicots have two cotyledons on each seed, and their leaves have branching veins.

Life Cycle of Angiosperms:

  • Angiosperms undergo sexual reproduction through the process of pollination and fertilization.
  • The male and female gametes grow within the flowers, which develop into fruits that contain seeds after being fertilized.
  • The seeds of angiosperms have a protective seed coat and an endosperm that provides nutrients for the developing embryo.

Importance of Angiosperms:

  • Angiosperms are the most dominant vascular plants found all around the world.
  • They are the primary source of food for humans and animals.
  • Angiosperms are also used for medicinal purposes, as they contain compounds that have therapeutic properties.
  • They play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of the ecosystem by providing oxygen and absorbing carbon dioxide.

In conclusion, angiosperms are a diverse and important group of plants that have well-developed bodies, undergo sexual reproduction through pollination and fertilization, and provide numerous benefits to humans and the environment.