Angiosperms are a group of vascular plants that bear flowers and fruits. They are also known as flowering plants and are the most advanced and beneficial group of plants.
Characteristics of Angiosperms:
- Angiosperms have well-differentiated bodies with fully developed shoot and root systems.
- They are vascular plants with stems, roots, and leaves.
- The seeds of angiosperms are found in a flower and develop inside the plant organs to form fruit.
- Angiosperms can grow in various habitats as trees, herbs, shrubs, and bushes.
- The flowers undergo double and triple fusion, which leads to the formation of a diploid zygote and triploid endosperm.
- All angiosperms are comprised of stamens and carpels, which are the reproductive structures of the flowers.
- The production of the endosperm is one of the greatest advantages of angiosperms. The endosperm is formed after fertilization and is a source of food for the developing seed and seedling.
Classification of Angiosperms:
- Angiosperms are divided into two subgroups: dicotyledonous (dicots) and monocotyledonous (monocots).
- Monocots have one cotyledon on each seed, and their leaves have parallel veins.
- Dicots have two cotyledons on each seed, and their leaves have branching veins.
Life Cycle of Angiosperms:
- Angiosperms undergo sexual reproduction through the process of pollination and fertilization.
- The male and female gametes grow within the flowers, which develop into fruits that contain seeds after being fertilized.
- The seeds of angiosperms have a protective seed coat and an endosperm that provides nutrients for the developing embryo.
Importance of Angiosperms:
- Angiosperms are the most dominant vascular plants found all around the world.
- They are the primary source of food for humans and animals.
- Angiosperms are also used for medicinal purposes, as they contain compounds that have therapeutic properties.
- They play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of the ecosystem by providing oxygen and absorbing carbon dioxide.
In conclusion, angiosperms are a diverse and important group of plants that have well-developed bodies, undergo sexual reproduction through pollination and fertilization, and provide numerous benefits to humans and the environment.